Mobile View
Main Search Advanced Search Disclaimer
Citedby 2658 docs - [View All]
Prudential Capital Markets Ltd., ... vs State Of A.P. And Others on 2 August, 2000
General Manager, Telecom ... vs Consumer Disputes Redressal ... on 3 April, 2000
Punjab National Bank vs The Consumer Disputes Redressal ... on 29 July, 2011
Kishore Lal vs Chairman, Employees State ... on 8 May, 2007
M/S. National Seeds Corpn. Ltd vs M.Madhusudhan Reddy & Anr on 16 January, 2012

User Queries
Central Government Act
the Consumer Protection Act, 1986
The Consumer Protection Act, 1986

1. Short title, extent, commencement and application.—
(1) This Act may be called the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. tc "1. Short title, extent, commencement and application.—(1) This Act may be called the Consumer Protection Act, 1986."
(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. tc "(2) It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir."
(3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different States and for different provisions of this Act. tc "(3) It shall come into force on such date1 as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different States and for different provisions of this Act."
(4) Save as otherwise expressly provided by the Central Government by notification, this Act shall apply to all goods and services. tc "(4) Save as otherwise expressly provided by the Central Government by notification, this Act shall apply to all goods and services."
2 Definitions. —
(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—
1 [(a) “appropriate laboratory” means a laboratory or organisation—
(ii) recognised by a State Government, subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by the Central Government in this behalf; or
(iii) any such laboratory or organisation established by or under any law for the time being in force, which is maintained, financed or aided by the Central Government or a State Government for carrying out analysis or test of any goods with a view to determining whether such goods suffer from any defect;]
2 [(aa) “branch office” means—
(i) any establishment described as a branch by the opposite party; or
(ii) any establishment carrying on either the same or substantially the same activity as that carried on by the head office of the establishment;]
with a view to obtaining any relief provided by or under this Act; 14 [ Explanation.— For the purposes of this clause,"commecial purpose" does not include use by a person of goods bought and used by him and services availed by him exclusively for the purposes of earning his livelihood by means of self-employment;] Provided that where a defence is raised to the effect that such warranty or guarantee is based on adequate or proper test, the burden of proof of such defence shall lie on the person raising such defence;
(i) a warranty or guarantee of a product or of any goods or services; or
(ii) a promise to replace, maintain or repair an article or any part thereof or to repeat or continue a service until it has achieved a specified result, if such purported warranty or guarantee or promise is materially misleading or if there is no reasonable prospect that such warranty, guarantee or promise will be carried out;
(b) “complainant” means—
(i) a consumer; or
(ii) any voluntary consumer association registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) or under any other law for the time being in force; or
(iii) the Central Government or any State Government; or
3 [(iv) one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest;]
(c) “complaint” means any allegation in writing made by a complainant that—
5 [(i) an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by 6 [any trader or service provider];]
(ii) 7 [the goods bought by him or agreed to be bought by him] suffer from one or more defects;
(iii) 8 [the services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him] suffer from deficiency in any respect;
9 [(iv) a trader or the service provider, as the case may be, has charged for the goods or for the services mentioned in the complaint, a price in excess of the price—
10 [(v) goods which will be hazardous to life and safety when used are being offered for sale to the public,—
(a) in contravention of any standards relating to safety of such goods as required to be complied with, by or under any law for the time being in force;
(b) if the trader could have known with due diligence that the goods so offered are unsafe to the public;]
(d) “consumer” means any person who,—
(i) buys any goods for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment and includes any user of such goods other than the person who buys such goods for consideration paid or promised or partly paid or partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment, when such use is made with the approval of such person, but does not include a person who obtains such goods for resale or for any commercial purpose; or
(ii) 12 [hires or avails of] any services for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment and includes any beneficiary of such services other than the person who 12 [hires or avails of] the services for consideration paid or promised, or partly paid and partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment, when such services are availed of with the approval of the first mentioned person 13 [but does not include a person who avails of such services for any commercial purpose];
(e) “consumer dispute” means a dispute where the person against whom a complaint has been made, denies or disputes the allegations contained in the complaint;
(f) “defect” means any fault, imperfection or shortcoming in the quality, quantity, potency, purity or standard which is required to be maintained by or under any law for the time being in force or 15 [under any contract, express or implied, or] as is claimed by the trader in any manner whatsoever in relation to any goods;
(g) “deficiency” means any fault, imperfection, shortcoming or inadequacy in the quality, nature and manner of performance which is required to be maintained by or under any law for the time being in force or has been undertaken to be performed by a person in pursuance of a contract or otherwise in relation to any service;
(h) “District Forum” means a Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum established under clause (a) of section 9;
(i) “goods” means goods as defined in the Sale of Goods Act, 1930 (3 of 1930);
16 [(j) “manufacturer” means a person who—
(i) makes or manufactures any goods or parts thereof; or
(ii) does not make or manufacture any goods but assembles parts thereof made or manufactured by others; or
(iii) puts or causes to be put his own mark on any goods made or manufactured by any other manufacturer;]
15 [(jj) “member” includes the President and a member of the National Commission or a State Commission or a District Forum, as the case may be;]
(k) “National Commission” means the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission established under clause (c) of section 9;
(l) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
(m) “person” includes,—
(i) a firm whether registered or not;
(ii) a Hindu undivided family;
(iii) a co-operative society;
(iv) every other association of persons whether registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860) or not;
(n) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the State Government, or as the case may be, by the Central Government under this Act;
17 [(nn) “regulation” means the regulations made by the National Commission under this Act;']
(a) delay beyond the period agreed to by a trader in supply of such goods or in providing the services which has led or is likely to lead to rise in the price;
(b) any trade practice which requires a consumer to buy, hire or avail of any goods or, as the case may be, services as condition precedent to buying, hiring or availing of other goods or services;]
(o) “service” means service of any description which is made available to potential 19 [users and includes, but not limited to, the provision of] facilities in connection with banking, financing insurance, transport, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, board or lodging or both, 20 [housing construction,] entertainment, amusement or the purveying of news or other information, but does not include the rendering of any service free of charge or under a contract of personal service; 21 [oo] "spurious goods and services" mean such goods and services which are claimed to be genuine but they are actually not so;]
(p) “State Commission” means a Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission established in a State under clause (b) of section 9;
(q) “trader” in relation to any goods means a person who sells or distributes any goods for sale and includes the manufacturer thereof, and where such goods are sold or distributed in package form, includes the packer thereof;
22 [(r) “unfair trade practice” means a trade practice which, for the purpose of promoting the sale, use or supply of any goods or for the provision of any service, adopts any unfair method or unfair or deceptive practice including any of the following practices, namely:—
(1) the practice of making any statement, whether orally or in writing or by visible representation which,—
(i) falsely represents that the goods are of a particular standard, quality, quantity, grade, composition, style or model;
(ii) falsely represents that the services are of a particular standard, quality or grade;
(iii) falsely represents any re-built, second-hand, renovated, reconditioned or old goods as new goods;
(iv) represents that the goods or services have sponsorship, approval, performance, characteristics, accessories, uses or benefits which such goods or services do not have;
(v) represents that the seller or the supplier has a sponsorship or approval or affiliation which such seller or supplier does not have;
(vi) makes a false or misleading representation concerning the need for, or the usefulness of, any goods or services;
(vii) gives to the public any warranty or guarantee of the performance, efficacy or length of life of a product or of any goods that is not based on an adequate or proper test thereof:
3. Act not in derogation of any other law.—The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the provisions of any other law for the time being in force. tc "3. Act not in derogation of any other law.—The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the provisions of any other law for the time being in force."
4. The Central Consumer Protection Council.—
(1) 1[The Central Government shall], by notification2, establish with effect from such date as it may specify in such notification, a Council to be known as the Central Consumer Protection Council (hereinafter referred to as the Central Council). tc "4. The Central Consumer Protection Council.—(1) 1[The Central Government shall], by notification2, establish with effect from such date as it may specify in such notification, a Council to be known as the Central Consumer Protection Council (hereinafter referred to as the Central Council)."
(2) The Central Council shall consist of the following members, namely:— tc "(2) The Central Council shall consist of the following members, namely\:—"
(a) the Minister in charge of the 3[consumer affairs] in the Central Government, who shall be its Chairman, and
(b) such number of other official or non-official members representing such interests as may be prescribed.
5. Procedure for meetings of the Central Council.—
(1) The Central Council shall meet as and when necessary, but 1[at least one meeting] of the Council shall be held every year. tc "5. Procedure for meetings of the Central Council.—(1) The Central Council shall meet as and when necessary, but 1[at least one meeting] of the Council shall be held every year."
(2) The Central Council shall meet at such time and place as the Chairman may think fit and shall observe such procedure in regard to the transaction of its business as may be prescribed. tc "(2) The Central Council shall meet at such time and place as the Chairman may think fit and shall observe such procedure in regard to the transaction of its business as may be prescribed."
6. Objects of the Central Council.—The objects of the Central Council shall be to promote and protect the rights of the consumers such as,— tc "6. Objects of the Central Council.—The objects of the Central Council shall be to promote and protect the rights of the consumers such as,—"
(a) the right to be protected against the marketing of goods 1[and services] which are hazardous to life and property;
(b) the right to be informed about the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods 1[or services, as the case may be] so as to protect the consumer against unfair trade practices;
(c) the right to be assured, wherever possible, access to a variety of goods 1[and services] at competitive prices;
(d) the right to be heard and to be assured that consumer's interests will receive due consideration at appropriate fora;
(e) the right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices 1[or restrictive trade practices] or unscrupulous exploitation of consumers; and
(f) the right to consumer education.
7. The State Consumer Protection Councils.—
(1) 1[The State Government shall], by notification, establish with effect from such date as it may specify in such notification, a Council to be known as the Consumer Protection Council for.....................(hereinafter referred to as the State Council). tc "7. The State Consumer Protection Councils.—(1) 3[The State Government shall], by notification, establish with effect from such date as it may specify in such notification, a Council to be known as the Consumer Protection Council for.....................(hereinafter referred to as the State Council)." 2[(2) The State Council shall consist of the following members, namely:— tc "4[(2) The State Council shall consist of the following members, namely\:—"
(3) The State Council shall meet as and when necessary but not less than two meetings shall be held every year. tc "(3) The State Council shall meet as and when necessary but not less than two meetings shall be held every year."
(4) The State Council shall meet at such time and place as the Chairman may think fit and shall observe such procedure in regard to the transaction of its business as may be prescribed by the State Government.] tc "(4) The State Council shall meet at such time and place as the Chairman may think fit and shall observe such procedure in regard to the transaction of its business as may be prescribed by the State Government.]"
8. Objects of the State Council.—The objects of every State Council shall be to promote and protect within the State the rights of the consumers laid down in clauses
9. Establishment of Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies.—There shall be established for the purposes of this Act, the following agencies, namely:— tc "9. Establishment of Consumer Disputes Redressal Agencies.—There shall be established for the purposes of this Act, the following agencies, namely\:—"
(a) a Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum to be known as the “District Forum” established by the State Government 1[* * *] in each district of the State by notification: 2[Provided that the State Government may, if it deems fit, establish more than one District Forum in a district;]
(b) a Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission to be known as the “State Commission” established by the State Government 1[* * *] in the State by notification; and
(c) a National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission established by the Central Government by notification.
11. Jurisdiction of the District Forum.—
(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the District Forum shall have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services and the compensation, if any, claimed 1[does not exceed rupees twenty lakhs]. tc "11. Jurisdiction of the District Forum.—(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the District Forum shall have jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of the goods or services and the compensation, if any, claimed 2[does not exceed rupees twenty lakhs]."
(2) A complaint shall be instituted in a District Forum within the local limits of whose jurisdiction,— tc "(2) A complaint shall be instituted in a District Forum within the local limits of whose jurisdiction,—"
(a) the opposite party or each of the opposite parties, where there are more than one, at the time of the institution of the complaint, actually and voluntarily resides or 2[carries on business or has a branch office or] personally works for gain, or
(b) any of the opposite parties, where there are more than one, at the time of the institution of the complaint, actually and voluntarily resides, or 3[carries on business or has a branch office], or personally works for gain, provided that in such case either the permission of the District Forum is given, or the opposite parties who do not reside, or 4[carry on business or have a branch office], or personally work for gain, as the case may be, acquiesce in such institution; or
(c) the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises.
1[12. Manner in which complaint shall be made.—
13. 1[Procedure on admission of complaint].—
(1) The District Forum shall, 2[on admission of a complaint], if it relates to any goods,— tc "13. 1[Procedure on admission of complaint].—(1) The District Forum shall, 2[on admission of a complaint], if it relates to any goods,—" 3[(a) refer a copy of the admitted complaint, within twenty-one days from the date of its admission to the opposite party mentioned in the complaint directing him to give his version of the case within a period of thirty days or such extended period not exceeding fifteen days as may be granted by the District Forum.]
(b) where the opposite party on receipt of a complaint referred to him under clause (a) denies or disputes the allegations contained in the complaint, or omits or fails to take any action to represent his case within the time given by the District Forum, the District Forum shall proceed to settle the consumer dispute in the manner specified in clauses (c) to (g);
(c) where the complaint alleges a defect in the goods which cannot be determined without proper analysis or test of the goods, the District Forum shall obtain a sample of the goods from the complainant, seal it and authenticate it in the manner prescribed and refer the sample so sealed to the appropriate laboratory along with a direction that such laboratory make an analysis or test, whichever may be necessary, with a view to finding out whether such goods suffer from any defect alleged in the complaint or from any other defect and to report its findings thereon to the District Forum within a period of forty-five days of the receipt of the reference or within such extended period as may be granted by the District Forum;
(d) before any sample of the goods is referred to any appropriate laboratory under clause (c), the District Forum may require the complainant to deposit to the credit of the Forum such fees as may be specified, for payment to the appropriate laboratory for carrying out the necessary analysis or test in relation to the goods in question;
(e) the District Forum shall remit the amount deposited to its credit under clause (d) to the appropriate laboratory to enable it to carry out the analysis or test mentioned in clause (c) and on receipt of the report from the appropriate laboratory, the District Forum shall forward a copy of the report along with such remarks as the District Forum may feel appropriate to the opposite party;
(f) if any of the parties disputes the correctness of the findings of the appropriate laboratory, or disputes the correctness of the methods of analysis or test adopted by the appropriate laboratory, the District Forum shall require the opposite party or the complainant to submit in writing his objections in regard to the report made by the appropriate laboratory;
(g) the District Forum shall thereafter give a reasonable opportunity to the complainant as well as the opposite party of being heard as to the correctness or otherwise of the report made by the appropriate laboratory and also as to the objection made in relation thereto under clause (f) and issue an appropriate order under section 14.
(2) The District Forum shall, if the 4[complaints admitted] by it under section 12 relates to goods in respect of which the procedure specified in sub-section (1) cannot be followed, or if the complaint relates to any services,— tc "(2) The District Forum shall, if the 1[complaints admitted] by it under section 12 relates to goods in respect of which the procedure specified in sub-section (1) cannot be followed, or if the complaint relates to any services,—"
(a) refer a copy of such complaint to the opposite party directing him to give his version of the case within a period of thirty days or such extended period not exceeding fifteen days as may be granted by the District Forum;
(b) where the opposite party, on receipt of a copy of the complaint, referred to him under clause (a) denies or disputes the allegations contained in the complaint, or omits or fails to take any action to represent his case within the time given by the District Forum, the District Forum shall proceed to settle the consumer dispute,—
(i) on the basis of evidence brought to its notice by the complainant and the opposite party, where the opposite party denies or disputes the allegations contained in the complaint, or
(ii) 5[ex parte on the basis of evidence] brought to its notice by the complainant where the opposite party omits or fails to take any action to represent his case within the time given by the Forum; 6[(c) where the complainant fails to appear on the date of hearing before the District Forum, the District Forum may either dismiss the complaint for default or decide it on merits.]
(3) No proceedings complying with the procedure laid down in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be called in question in any court on the ground that the principles of natural justice have not been complied with. tc "(3) No proceedings complying with the procedure laid down in sub-sections (1) and (2) shall be called in question in any court on the ground that the principles of natural justice have not been complied with." 7[(3A) Every complaint shall be heard as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to decide the complaint within a period of three months from the date of receipt of notice by opposite party where the complaint does not require analysis or testing of commodities and within five months, if it requires analysis or testing of commodities: tc "1[(3A) Every complaint shall be heard as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to decide the complaint within a period of three months from the date of receipt of notice by opposite party where the complaint does not require analysis or testing of commodities and within five months, if it requires analysis or testing of commodities\:" Provided that no adjournment shall be ordinarily granted by the District Forum unless sufficient cause is shown and the reasons for grant of adjournment have been recorded in writing by the Forum: tc "Provided that no adjournment shall be ordinarily granted by the District Forum unless sufficient cause is shown and the reasons for grant of adjournment have been recorded in writing by the Forum\:" Provided further that the District Forum shall make such orders as to the costs occasioned by the adjournment as may be provided in the regulations made under this Act: tc "Provided further that the District Forum shall make such orders as to the costs occasioned by the adjournment as may be provided in the regulations made under this Act\:" Provided also that in the event of a complaint being disposed of after the period so specified, the District Forum shall record in writing, the reasons for the same at the time of disposing of the said complaint. tc "Provided also that in the event of a complaint being disposed of after the period so specified, the District Forum shall record in writing, the reasons for the same at the time of disposing of the said complaint."
(4) For the purposes of this section, the District Forum shall have the same powers as are vested in a civil court under Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely:— tc "(4) For the purposes of this section, the District Forum shall have the same powers as are vested in a civil court under Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely\:—"
(i) the summoning and enforcing the attendance of any defendant or witness and examining the witness on oath,
(ii) the discovery and production of any document or other material object producible as evidence,
(iii) the reception of evidence on affidavits,
(iv) the requisitioning of the report of the concerned analysis or test from the appropriate laboratory or from any other relevant source,
(v) issuing of any commission for the examination of any witness, and
(vi) any other matter which may be prescribed.
(5) Every proceeding before the District Forum shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and the District Forum shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purposes of section 195, and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974). tc "(5) Every proceeding before the District Forum shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and the District Forum shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purposes of section 195, and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)." 8[(6) Where the complainant is a consumer referred to in sub-clause (iv) of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2, the provisions of rule 8 of Order I of the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall apply subject to the modification that every reference therein to a suit or decree shall be construed as a reference to a complaint or the order of the District Forum thereon.] tc "2[(6) Where the complainant is a consumer referred to in sub-clause (iv) of clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2, the provisions of rule 8 of Order I of the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall apply subject to the modification that every reference therein to a suit or decree shall be construed as a reference to a complaint or the order of the District Forum thereon.]" 8[(7) In the event of death of a complainant who is a consumer or of the opposite party against whom the complaint has been filed, the provisions of Order XXII of the First Scheduled to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall apply subject to the modification that every reference therein to the plaintiff and the defendant shall be construed as reference to a complainant or the opposite party, as the case may be.] tc "1[(7) In the event of death of a complainant who is a consumer or of the opposite party against whom the complaint has been filed, the provisions of Order XXII of the First Scheduled to the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall apply subject to the modification that every reference therein to the plaintiff and the defendant shall be construed as reference to a complainant or the opposite party, as the case may be.]"
14. Finding of the District Forum.—
(1) If, after the proceeding conducted under section 13, the District Forum is satisfied that the goods complained against suffer from any of the defects specified in the complaint or that any of the allegations contained in the complaint about the services are proved, it shall issue an order to the opposite party directing him to 1[do] one or more of the following things, namely:— tc "14. Finding of the District Forum.—(1) If, after the proceeding conducted under section 13, the District Forum is satisfied that the goods complained against suffer from any of the defects specified in the complaint or that any of the allegations contained in the complaint about the services are proved, it shall issue an order to the opposite party directing him to 1[do] one or more of the following things, namely\:—"
(a) to remove the defect pointed out by the appropriate laboratory from the goods in question;
(b) to replace the goods with new goods of similar description which shall be free from any defect;
(c) to return to the complainant the price, or, as the case may be, the charges paid by the complainant;
(d) to pay such amount as may be awarded by it as compensation to the consumer for any loss or injury suffered by the consumer due to the negligence of the opposite party: 56 [Provided that the District Forum shall have the power to grant punitive damages in such circumstances as it deems fit;]
57 [(e) to 58 [remove the defects in goods] or deficiencies in the services in question;
(f) to discontinue the unfair trade practice or the restrictive trade practice or not to repeat them;
(g) not to offer the hazardous goods for sale;
(h) to withdraw the hazardous goods from being offered for sale;
59 [(2) Every proceeding referred to in sub-section (1) shall be conducted by the President of the District Forum and at least one member thereof sitting together: 60 [Provided that where a member, for any reason, is unable to conduct a proceeding till it is completed, the President and the other member shall continue the proceeding from the stage at which it was last heard by the previous member.]
(2A) Every order made by the District Forum under sub-section (1) shall be signed by its President and the member or members who conducted the proceeding: tc "(2A) Every order made by the District Forum under sub-section (1) shall be signed by its President and the member or members who conducted the proceeding\:" Provided that where the proceeding is conducted by the President and one member and they differ on any point or points, they shall state the point or points on which they differ and refer the same to the other member for hearing on such point or points and the opinion of the majority shall be the order of the District Forum.] tc "Provided that where the proceeding is conducted by the President and one member and they differ on any point or points, they shall state the point or points on which they differ and refer the same to the other member for hearing on such point or points and the opinion of the majority shall be the order of the District Forum.]"
(3) Subject to the foregoing provisions, the procedure relating to the conduct of the meetings of the District Forum, its sittings and other matters shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government. tc "(3) Subject to the foregoing provisions, the procedure relating to the conduct of the meetings of the District Forum, its sittings and other matters shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government."
15. Appeal.—Any person aggrieved by an order made by the District Forum may prefer an appeal against such order to the State Commission within a period of thirty days from the date of the order, in such form and manner as may be prescribed: tc "15. Appeal.—Any person aggrieved by an order made by the District Forum may prefer an appeal against such order to the State Commission within a period of thirty days from the date of the order, in such form and manner as may be prescribed\:" Provided that the State Commission may entertain an appeal after the expiry of the said period of thirty days if it is satisfied that there was sufficient cause for not filing it within that period: tc "Provided that the State Commission may entertain an appeal after the expiry of the said period of thirty days if it is satisfied that there was sufficient cause for not filing it within that period\:" 1[Provided further that no appeal by a person, who is required to pay any amount in terms of an order of the District Forum, shall be entertained by the State Commission unless the appellant has deposited in the prescribed manner fifty per cent. of that amount or twenty-five thousand rupees, whichever is less.] tc "1[Provided further that no appeal by a person, who is required to pay any amount in terms of an order of the District Forum, shall be entertained by the State Commission unless the appellant has deposited in the prescribed manner fifty per cent. of that amount or twenty-five thousand rupees, whichever is less.]"
16. Composition of the State Commission.—
(1) Each State Commission shall consist of— tc "16. Composition of the State Commission.—(1) Each State Commission shall consist of—"
(a) a person who is or has been a Judge of a High Court, appointed by the State Government, who shall be its President: 1[Provided that no appointment under this clause shall be made except after consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court;] 2[(b) not less than two, and not more than such number of members, as may be prescribed, and one of whom shall be a woman, who shall have the following qualifications, namely:—
(2) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service 4[***] of, the members of the State Commission shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government. tc" (2) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service 2[***] of, the members of the State Commission shall be such as may be prescribed by the State Government." 5[Provided that the appointment of a member on whole-time basis shall be made by the State Government on the recommendation of the President of the State Commission taking into consideration such factors as may be prescribed including the work load of the State Commission.] tc "3[Provided that the appointment of a member on whole-time basis shall be made by the State Government on the recommendation of the President of the State Commission taking into consideration such factors as may be prescribed including the work load of the State Commission.]" 6[3. Every member of the State Commission shall hold office for a term of five years or up to the age of sixty-seven years, whichever is earlier: tc "1[3. Every member of the State Commission shall hold office for a term of five years or up to the age of sixty-seven years, whichever is earlier\:" Provided that a member shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years or up to the age of sixty-seven years, whichever is earlier, subject to the condition that he fulfils the qualifications and other conditions for appointment mentioned in clause (b) of sub-section (1) and such re-appointment is made on the basis of the recommendation of the Selection Committee: tc "Provided that a member shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years or up to the age of sixty-seven years, whichever is earlier, subject to the condition that he fulfils the qualifications and other conditions for appointment mentioned in clause (b) of sub-section (1) and such re-appointment is made on the basis of the recommendation of the Selection Committee\:" Provided further that a person appointed as a President of the State Commission shall also be eligible for re-appointment in the manner provided in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of this section: tc "Provided further that a person appointed as a President of the State Commission shall also be eligible for re-appointment in the manner provided in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of this section\:" Provided also that a member may resign his office in writing under his hand addressed to the State Government and on such resignation being accepted, his office shall become vacant and may be filled by appointment of a person possessing any of the qualifications mentioned in sub-section (1) in relation to the category of the member who is required to be appointed under the provisions of sub-section (1A) in place of the person who has resigned. tc "Provided also that a member may resign his office in writing under his hand addressed to the State Government and on such resignation being accepted, his office shall become vacant and may be filled by appointment of a person possessing any of the qualifications mentioned in sub-section (1) in relation to the category of the member who is required to be appointed under the provisions of sub-section (1A) in place of the person who has resigned."
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), a person appointed as the President or as a member, before the commencement of the Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002, shall continue to hold such office as President or member, as the case may be, till the completion of his term.] tc "(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), a person appointed as the President or as a member, before the commencement of the Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002, shall continue to hold such office as President or member, as the case may be, till the completion of his term.]"
17. Jurisdiction of the State Commission.— 68 [
18. Procedure applicable to State Commissions.— 73 [The provisions of sections 12, 13 and 14 and the rules made thereunder] for the disposal of complaints by the District Forum shall, with such modifications as may be necessary, be applicable to the disposal of disputes by the State Commission.
74 [ 18A Vacancy in the office of the President. —[Rep. by the Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002 (62 of 2002), sec. 15 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).]]
19. Appeals.—Any person aggrieved by an order made by the State Commission in exercise of its powers conferred by sub-clause
20. Composition of the National Commission.—
(1) The National Commission shall consist of—
(a) a person who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court, to be appointed by the Central Government, who shall be its President: 77 [Provided that no appointment under this clause shall be made except after consultation with the Chief Justice of India;]
78 [(b) not less than four, and not more than such number of members, as may be prescribed, and one of whom shall be a woman, who shall have the following qualifications, namely:—
(2) The salary or honorarium and other allowances payable to and the other terms and conditions of service 4[***] of the members of the National Commission shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government. 81 [ 82 [(3) Every member of the National Commission shall hold office for a term of five years or up to the age of seventy years, whichever is earlier: Provided that a member shall be eligible for re-appointment for another term of five years or up to the age of seventy years, whichever is earlier, subject to the condition that he fulfils the qualifications and other conditions for appointment mentioned in clause (b) of sub-section (1) and such re-appointment is made on the basis of the recommendation of the Selection Committee: Provided further that a person appointed as a President of the National Commission shall also be eligible for re-appointment in the manner provided in clause (a) of sub-section (1): Provided also that a member may resign his office in writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government and on such resignation being accepted, his office shall become vacant and may be filled by appointment of a person possessing any of the qualifications mentioned in sub-section (1) in relation to the category of the member who is required to be appointed under the provisions of sub-section (1A) in place of the person who has resigned.]
(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3), a person appointed as a President or as a member before the commencement of the Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002 shall continue to hold such office as President or member, as the case may be, till the completion of his term.]
21. Jurisdiction of the National Commission.—Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the National Commission shall have jurisdiction— tc "21. Jurisdiction of the National Commission.—Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the National Commission shall have jurisdiction—"
(a) to entertain—
(i) complaints where the value of the goods or services and compensation, if any, claimed exceeds 1[rupees one crore]; and
(ii) appeals against the orders of any State Commission; and
(b) to call for the records and pass appropriate orders in any consumer dispute which is pending before or has been decided by any State Commission where it appears to the National Commission that such State Commission has exercised a jurisdiction not vested in it by law, or has failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested, or has acted in the exercise of its jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity.
84 [ 85 [22. Power and procedure applicable to the National Commission.—
23. Appeal.—Any person, aggrieved by an order made by the National Commission in exercise of its powers conferred by sub-clause
24. Finality of orders.—Every order of a District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission shall, if no appeal has been preferred against such order under the provisions of this Act, be final. tc "24. Finality of orders.—Every order of a District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission shall, if no appeal has been preferred against such order under the provisions of this Act, be final."
91 [24A. Limitation period.—
(1) The District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission shall not admit a complaint unless it is filed within two years from the date on which the cause of action has arisen. tc "2[24A. Limitation period.—(1) The District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission shall not admit a complaint unless it is filed within two years from the date on which the cause of action has arisen."
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a complaint may be entertained after the period specified in sub-section (1), if the complainant satisfies the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission, as the case may be, that he had sufficient cause for not filing the complaint within such period: tc "(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a complaint may be entertained after the period specified in sub-section (1), if the complainant satisfies the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission, as the case may be, that he had sufficient cause for not filing the complaint within such period\:" Provided that no such complaint shall be entertained unless the National Commission, the State Commission or the District Forum, as the case may be, records its reasons for condoning such delay.]
1[24B. Administrative control.—
(1) The National Commission shall have administrative control over all the State Commissions in the following matters, namely:— tc "2[24B. Administrative control.—(1) The National Commission shall have administrative control over all the State Commissions in the following matters, namely\:—"
(i) calling for periodical return regarding the institution, disposal, pendency of cases;
(ii) issuance of instructions regarding adoption of uniform procedure in the hearing of matters, prior service of copies of documents produced by one party to the opposite parties, furnishing of English translation of judgments written in any language, speedy grant of copies of documents;
(iii) generally overseeing the functioning of the State Commissions or the District Fora to ensure that the objects and purposes of the Act are best served without in any way interfering with their quasi-judicial freedom.
(2) The State Commission shall have administrative control over all the District Fora within its jurisdiction in all matters referred to in sub-section (1).]
1[25. Enforcement of orders of the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission.—
94 [26. Dismissal of frivolous or vexatious complaints.—Where a complaint instituted before the District Forum, the State Commission or, as the case may be, the National Commission is found to be frivolous or vexatious, it shall, for reasons to be recorded in writing, dismiss the complaint and make an order that the complainant shall pay to the opposite party such cost, not exceeding ten thousand rupees, as may be specified in the order.] tc "2[26. Dismissal of frivolous or vexatious complaints.—Where a complaint instituted before the District Forum, the State Commission or, as the case may be, the National Commission is found to be frivolous or vexatious, it shall, for reasons to be recorded in writing, dismiss the complaint and make an order that the complainant shall pay to the opposite party such cost, not exceeding ten thousand rupees, as may be specified in the order.]"
27. Penalties.— 95 [
28. Protection of action taken in good faith.—No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against the members of the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission or any officer or person acting under the direction of the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission for executing any order made by it or in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done by such member, officer or person under this Act or under any rule or order made thereunder. tc "28. Protection of action taken in good faith.—No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against the members of the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission or any officer or person acting under the direction of the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission for executing any order made by it or in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done by such member, officer or person under this Act or under any rule or order made thereunder."
29. Power to remove difficulties.—
(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as appear to it to be necessary or expedient for removing the difficulty: tc "29. Power to remove difficulties.—(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as appear to it to be necessary or expedient for removing the difficulty\:" Provided that no such order shall be made after the expiry of a period of two years from the commencement of this Act. tc "Provided that no such order shall be made after the expiry of a period of two years from the commencement of this Act."
(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament. tc "(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament."
1[29A. Vacancies or defects in appointment not to invalidate orders.—No act or proceeding of the District Forum, the State Commission or the National Commission shall be invalid by reason only of the existence of any vacancy amongst its members or any defect in the constitution thereof.]
103 [30. Power to make rules.—
(1) The Central Government may, by notification, make rules for carrying out the provisions contained in clause
(2) The State Government may, by notification, make rules for carrying out the provisions contained in clause (b) of sub-section (2) and sub-section (4) of section 7, clause (b) of sub-section (2) and sub-section (4) of section 8A, clause (b) of sub-section (1) and sub-section (3) of section 10, clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 13, clause (hb) of sub-section (1) and sub-section (3) of section 14, section 15 and clause (b) of sub-section (1) and sub section (2) of section 16 of this Act.]
105 [31. Rules and regulations to be laid before each House of Parliament.—
(1) Every rule and every regulation made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or regulation or both Houses agree that the rule or regulation should not be made, the rule or regulation shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or regulation. tc "2[31. Rules and regulations to be laid before each House of Parliament.— (1) Every rule and every regulation made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or regulation or both Houses agree that the rule or regulation should not be made, the rule or regulation shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule or regulation."
(2) Every rule made by a State Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before the State Legislature.]
1. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2, for clause (a) (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
2. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
3. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
4. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
5. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2, for sub-clause (i) (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
6. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for "any trader" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
7. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2, for "the goods mentioned in the complaint" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
8. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2, for "the services mentioned in the complaint" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
9. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for sub-clause (iv) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 )
10. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for sub-clause (v) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ). Earlier sub-clause (v) was inserted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
11. Sub-clause (vi) along with sub-clauses (iv) and (v) subs. for clauses (iv) and (v) by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
12. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2, for "hires" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
13. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
14. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for Explanation (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ). Earlier Explanation was inserted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
15. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
16. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for clause (j) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
17. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for clause (nn) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ). Earlier clause (nn) was inserted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
18. Clause (nnn) along with clause (nn) subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for clause (nn) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
19. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2, for "users and includes the provision of" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
20. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
21. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
22. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 2, for clause (r) (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993 ).
23. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003 ).
24. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 3, for "The Central Government may" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
25. Notified vide S.O. 512 (E), dated 8th May, 2003.
26. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 3, for "the Department of Food and Civil Supplies" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
27. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 4, for "not less than three meetings" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
28. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 5 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
29. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 4, for "The State Government may" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
30. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 6, for sub-section (2) (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
31. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 4 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
32. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
33. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
34. The words "with the prior approval of the Central Government" omitted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 7 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
35. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 7 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
36. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 8, for sub-section (1) (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
37. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 6, for clause (b) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Clause (b), before substitution, stood as under:
38. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 8 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
39. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 6 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
40. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 6, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Sub-section (2), before substitution, stood as under:
41. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 6 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
42. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 9, for "is less than rupees one lakh" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993) and again subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 7, for "does not exceed rupees five lakhs" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
43. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 9, for "carries on business or" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
44. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 9, for "carries on business" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
45. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 9, for "carry on business" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
46. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 8, for section 12 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Earlier section 12 was substituted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 10 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993). Section 12, before substitution by Act 62 of 2002, stood as under:
47. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9, for "Procedure on receipt of a complaint" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
48. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9, for "on receipt of complaint" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
49. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9, for clause (a) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Clause (a), before substitution, stood as under:
50. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9, for "complaint received" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
51. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9, for "on the basis of evidence" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
52. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
53. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
54. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 11 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
55. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 12, for "take" (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
56. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 10 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
57. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 12 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
58. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 10, for "remove the defects" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
59. Subs. by Act 34 of 1991, sec. 2, for sub-section (2) (w.r.e.f. 15-6-1991).
60. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 10, for the proviso (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). The proviso, before substitution, stood as under:
61. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 11 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
62. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 13 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
63. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 12, for clause (b) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Clause (b), before substitution, stood as under:
64. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 12 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
65. The words "(including tenure of office)" omitted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 13 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
66. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 12 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
67. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 12, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Earlier sub-section (3) was substituted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 13 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993). Sub-section (3), before substitution by Act 62 of 2002, stood as under:
68. Section 17 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 13 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
69. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 13, for "exceds rupees five lakhs but does not exceed rupees twenty lakhs" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
70. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 13 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
71. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 14 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
72. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 14 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
73. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 15 for certain words (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
74. Section 18A was earlier inserted by Act 34 of 1991, sec. 3 (w.r.e.f. 15-6-1991).
75. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 16 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
76. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 17 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
77. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 16 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
78. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 18, for clause (b) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Clause (b), before substitution, stood as under:
79. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 18 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
80. The words “(including tenure of office)” omitted by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 16 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
81. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 16 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
82. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 18, for sub-section (3) (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Sub-section (3), before substitution, stood as under:
83. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 19, for "rupees twenty lakhs" (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
84. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 18 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
85. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 20, for section 22 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Section 22, before substitution, stood as under:
86. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 20, for section 22 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
87. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 20, for section 22 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
88. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 20, for section 22 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
89. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 20, for section 22 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
90. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 21 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
91. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 19 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
92. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 19 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
93. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 22, for section 25 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Section 25, before substitution, stood as under:
94. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 20, for section 26 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
95. Section 27 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 23 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
96. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, sec. 21 (w.r.e.f. 18-6-1993).
97. Proviso omitted by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 23 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Proviso, before omission, stood as under:
98. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 23 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
99. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 24 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
100. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 25 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
101. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 26 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
102. Ins. by Act 34 of 1991, sec. 4 (w.r.e.f. 15-6-1991).
103. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 27, for section 30 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Section 30, before substitution, stood as under:
104. Ins. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 28 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003).
105. Subs. by Act 62 of 2002, sec. 29, for section 31 (w.e.f. 15-3-2003). Section 31, before substitution, stood as under: