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Union Of India (Uoi) And Anr. vs Kashmir Finance Ltd. on 22 March, 2006
Dr. A.S. Chandra And Ors. vs Union Of India (Uoi) And Ors. on 17 April, 1992
M/S. National Seeds Corpn. Ltd. vs M.Madhusudhan Reddy & Anr. on 16 January, 2012
U.T. Chandigarh Administration & ... vs Amarjeet Singh And Ors. on 17 March, 2009
Ble Mr. Justice Tarun Kumar Gupta ... vs Ajoy Mukherjee And Another For The on 26 September, 2013

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[Complete Act]
Central Government Act
Section 2 in The Consumer Protection Act, 1986
2. Definitions.
(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,--
(a) 2[ " appropriate laboratory" means a laboratory or orga- nasation-- (i) recognised by the Central Government;
(ii) recognised by a State Government, subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by the Central Govern- ment in this behalf; or
(iii) any such laboratory or organisation established by or under any law for the time being in force, which is maintained, financed or aided by the Central Government or a State Government for carrying out analysis or test of any goods with a view to determining whether such goods suffer from any defect;]
(aa) 3[ " branch office" means--
(i) any establishment described as a branch by the opposite party; or
(ii) any establishment carring on either the same or substantially the same activity as that carried on by the head office of the establishment;]
1. The provisions of Chapters I, II and IV of this Act came in to force in the whole of India expect the State of Jammu and Kashmir on 15- 4- 1987: vide notification No. S. O. 390 (E), dated 15- 4- 1987, Gazette of India, Extraordinary 1987, Part II, section 3 (ii). The provisions of Chapter III of this Act came in to force in the whole India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir on 1- 7- 1987: vide Notification No. S. O. 568 (E), dated 10. 6. 87, Gazette of India Extraordinary, 1987, part II, Section 3 (ii).
2. Subs. by Act 50 of 1993, s. 2 (w. e. f. 18- 6- 1993 ). 3 Ins. by s. 2, ibid.
(b) " complainant" means--
(i) a consumer; or
(ii) any voluntary consumer association registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956 ) or under any other law for the time being in force; or
(iii) the Central Government or any State Government, who or which makes a complaint;
(iv) 1[ one or more consumers, where there are nume- rous consumers having the same interest;]
(c) " complaint" means any allegation in writing made by a complainant that--
(i) 2[ an unfair trade practice or a restrictive trade practice has been adopted by any trader;]
(ii) 2[ the goods bought by him or agreed to be bou- ght by him] suffer from one or more defects;
(iii) 2[ the services hired or availed of or agreed to be hired or availed of by him] suffer from deficiency in any respect;
(iv) a trader has charged for the goods mentioned in the complaint a price in excess of the price fixed by or under any law for the time being in force or displayed on the goods or any package containing such goods;
(v) 1[ goods which will be hazardous to life and safety when used, are being offered for sale to the public in con- travention of the provisions of any law for the time being in force requiring traders to display information in regard to the contents, manner and effect of use of such goods], with a view to obtaining any relief provided by or under this Act;
(d) " consumer" means any person who,--
(i) buys any goods for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment and includes any user of such goods other than the person who buys such goods for consideration paid or promised or partly paid or partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment when such use is made with the approval of such person, but does not include a person who obtains such goods for resale or for any commercial purpose; or
(ii) 2[ hires or avails of] any services for a conside- ration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and part by promised, or under any system of deferred payment and includes any beneficiary of such services other than the person who 2[ hires or avails of] the services for consideration paid or promised, or partly paid and partly promised, or under any system of deferred payment, when such services are availed of with the approval of the first mentioned person. 1[ Explanation.-- For the purposes of sub- clause (i)," commercial purpose" does not include use by a consumer of goods bought and used by him exclusively for the purpose of earning his livelihood, by means of self- employment;]
(e) " consumer dispute" means a dispute where the person against whom a complaint has been made, denies or disputes the allegations contained in the complaint.
(f) " defect" means any fault, imperfection or shortcoming in the quality, quantity, potency, purity or standard which is required to be
1. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, s. 2 (w. e. f. 18- 6- 1993 ). 2 Subs. by s. 2, ibdi. (w. e. f. 18- 6- 1993 ).
maintained by or under any law for the time being in force or 1[ under any contract, express or implied or] as is claimed by the trader in any manner whatsoever in relation to any goods;
(g) " deficiency" means any fault, imperfection, shortcoming or inadequacy in the quality, nature and manner of performance which is required to be maintained by or under any law for the time being in force or has been undertaken to be performed by a person in pursuance of a contract or otherwise in relation to any service;
(h) " District Forum" means a Consumer Dispute Redressal Forum estalished under clause (a) of section 9;
(i) " goods" means goods as defined in the Sale of Goods Act, 1930 (3 of 1930 );
(j) " manufacturer" means a person who--
(i) makes or manufactures any goods or parts thereof; or
(ii) does not make or manufacture any goods but assembles parts thereof made or manufactured by others and claims the end- product to be goods manufactured by himself; or
(iii) puts or causes to be put his own mark on any goods made or manufactured by any other manufacturer and claims such goods to be goods made or manufactured by himself. Explanation.-- Where a manufacturer despatches any goods or part thereof to any branch office maintained by him, such branch office shall not be deemed to be the manufacturer even though the parts so despatched to it are assembled at such branch office and are sold or distributed from such branch office;
(jj) 1[ " member" includes the President and a member of the National Commission or a State Commission or a District Forum, as the case may be;]
(k) " National Commission" means the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission established under clause (c) of section 9;
(l) " notification" means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
(m) " person" includes,--
(i) a firm whether registered or not;
(ii) a Hindu undivided family;
(iii) a co- operative society;
(iv) every other association of persons whether registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 (21 of 1860 ) or not;
(n) " prescribed" means prescribed by rules made by the State Government, or as the case may be, by the Central Government under this Act;
(nn) 1[ " restrictive trade practice" means any trade prac- tice which requires a consumer to buy, hire or avail of any goods or, as the case may be, services as a condition precedent for buying, hiring or availing of other goods or services;]
(o) " service" means service of any description which is made available to potential users and includes the provision of facilities in connection with banking, financing, insurance, transport, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, board or lodging or both, 1[ housing construction,] enter-
1. Ins. by Act 50 of 1993, s. 2 (w. e. f. 18- 6- 1993 ).
tainment, amusement or the purveying of news or other information, but does not include the rendering of any service free of charge or under a contract of personal service;
(p) " State Commission" means a Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission established in a State under clause (b) of section 9;
(q) " trader" in relation to any goods means a person who sells or distributes any goods for sale and includes the manufacturer thereof, and where such goods are sold or distributed in package form, includes the packer thereof;
(r) 1[ " unfair trade practice" means a trade practice which, for the purpose of promoting the sale, use or supply of any goods or for the provision of any service, adopts any unfair method or unfair or deceptive practice including any of the following prac- tices, namely:-
(1) the practice of making any statement, whether orally or in writing or by visible representation which,-
(i) falsely represents that the goods are of a particular standard, quality, quantity, grade, composition, style or model;
(ii) falsely represents that the services are of a particular standard, quality or grade;
(iii) falsely represents any re- built, second- hand, renovated, reconditioned or old goods as new goods;
(iv) represents that the goods or services have sponsorship, approval, performance, characteristics, accessories, uses or benefits which such goods or services do not have;
(v) represents that the seller or the supplier has a sponsorship or approval or affiliation which such seller or supplier does not have;
(vi) makes a false or misleading representation concerning the need for, or the usefulness of, any goods or services;
(vii) gives to the public any warranty or guara- ntee of the performance, efficacy or length of life of a product or of any goods that is not based on an adequate or proper test thereof: Provided that where a defence is raised to the effect that such warranty or guarantee is based on adequate or proper test, the burden of proof of such defence shall lie on the person raising such defence;
(viii) makes to the public a representation in a form that purports to be--
(i) a warranty or guarantee of a product or of any goods or services; or
(ii) a promise to replace, maintain or rep- air an article or any part thereof or to repeat or continue a service until it has achieved a specified result, if such purported warranty or guarantee or promise is materially misleading or if there is no reasona- ble prospect that such warranty, guarantee or pro- mise will be carried out;
(ix) materially misleads the public concerning the price at which a product or like products or goods or services, have been or are, ordinarily sold or provided, and, for this purpose, a representa- tion as to price shall be deemed to refer to the price at which the product or goods or services has or have been sold by sellers or provided by suppliers generally in the relevant market unless it is clearly specified to be the price at which the product has been sold or services have been provided by the person by whom or on whose behalf the representation is made;
(x) gives false or misleading facts disparaging goods, services or trade of another person. Explanation.-- For the purposes of clause (1), a statement that is--
(a) expressed on an article offered or displ- ayed for sale, or on its wrapper or container; or
(b) expressed on anything attached to, inserted in, or accompanying, an article offered or displayed for sale, or on anything on which the article is mounted for display or sale; or
(c) contained in or on anything that is sold, sent, delivered, transmitted or in any other manner whatsoever made available to a member of the public, shall be deemed to be a statement made to the public by, and only by, the person who had caused the statement to be so expressed, made or contained;
(2) permits the publication of any advertisement whether in any newspaper or otherwise, for the sale or supply at a bargain price, of goods or services that are not intended to be offered for sale or supply at the bargain price, or for a period that is, and in quanti- ties that are, reasonable, having regard to the nature of the market in which the business is carried on, the nature and size of business, and the nature of the advertisement. Explanation.-- For the purposes of clause (2)," bargaining price" means--
(a) a price that is stated in any advertisement to be a bargain price, by reference to an ordinary price or otherwise, or
(b) a price that a person who reads, hears or sees the adver- tisement, would reasonably understand to be a bargain price having regard to the prices at which the product advertised or like products are ordinarily sold;
(3) permits--
(a) the offering of gifts, prizes or other items with the intention of not providing them as offered or creating impression that something is being given or offered free of charge when it it is fully or partly covered by the amount charged in the transaction as a whole;
(b) the conduct of any contest, lottery, game of chance or skill, for the purpose of promoting, directly or indirectly, the sale, use or supply of any product or any business interest;
(4) permits the sale or supply of goods intended to be used, or are of a kind likely to be used, by consumers, knowing or having reason to believe that the goods do not comply with the standards prescribed by competent authority relating to performance, composition contents, design, constructions, finishing or packaging as are necessary to prevent or reduce the risk of injury to the person using the goods;
(5) permits the hoarding or destruction of goods, or refuses to sell the goods or to make them available for sale or to provide any service, if such hoarding or destruction or refusal raises or tends to raise or is intended to raise, the cost of those or other similar goods or services.
(2) Any reference in this Act to any other Act or provision thereof which is not in force in any area to which this Act applies shall be construed to have a reference to the corresponding Act or provision thereof in force in such area.