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Martin & Harris Limited vs With Additional Distt. Judge & Ors on 11 December, 1997
Prabhakar Rao N. Mawle vs State Of Andhra Pradesh on 9 April, 1965
192nd Report on Prevention of Vexatious Litigation
State Of U.P. And Anr. vs Nirmal Kumar Patni on 28 September, 2004
Kripa Shankar Sinha vs State Of Uttar Pradesh And Others on 13 January, 1995

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Central Government Act
The Indian Soldiers (Litigation) Act, 1925
The Indian Soldiers (Litigation) Act, 1925

1. Short title, extent and commencement.—
(1) This Act may be called The Indian Soldiers (Litigation) Act, 1925. tc "1. Short title, extent and commencement.—(1) This Act may be called The Indian Soldiers (Litigation) Act, 1925."
1 [(2) It extends to the whole of India 2 [***].]
(3) It shall come into force on the first day of April, 1925. The Act has been extended to the Union territory of Pondicherry subject to the modifications that (i) a reference to a law not in force or to a functionary not in existence in Pondicherry shall be construed as a reference to corresponding law in force or to corresponding functionary in existence, in Pondicherry and (ii) sub-section (3) shall be omitted—See S.O. 4, Gazette of India, 1963, Pt. II, section 3 (ii), p. 3.
2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,— tc "2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context,—"
3 [(a) “Court” means a Court other than a Criminal Court and includes any such tribunal or other authority as may be specified by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette being a tribunal or authority which is empowered by law to receive evidence on any matter pending before it and on the basis of such evidence to determine, after hearing the parties before it, the rights and obligations of the parties in relation to such matter]; tc" 3[(a) “Court” means a Court other than a Criminal Court and includes any such tribunal or other authority as may be specified by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette being a tribunal or authority which is empowered by law to receive evidence on any matter pending before it and on the basis of such evidence to determine, after hearing the parties before it, the rights and obligations of the parties in relation to such matter];"
(b) “Indian soldier” means any person subject to 4 [the Army Act, 1950, or the Air Force Act 1950], [or the Navy Act, 1957]; tc" (b) “Indian soldier” means any person subject to 4[the Army Act, 1950, or the Air Force Act 1950], [or the Navy Act, 1957];"
(c) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act; and
(d) “proceeding” includes any suit, appeal or application.
5 [(e) any reference to a decree or order of a Court shall be deemed to include a reference to a judgement, determination or award of a Court.]
3. Circumstances in which an Indian soldier shall be deemed to be serving under special conditions.—For the purposes of this Act, an Indian soldier shall be deemed to be or, as the case may be, to have been serving— tc "3. Circumstances in which an Indian soldier shall be deemed to be serving under special conditions.—For the purposes of this Act, an Indian soldier shall be deemed to be or, as the case may be, to have been serving—"
(a) under special conditions (when he is or has been serving under war conditions), or overseas, or at any place 6 [beyond India], 7 [or any such place within India as may be specified by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette];
(b) under war conditions—when he is or has been, at any time during the continuance of any hostilities declared by the 8 [Central Government] by notification in the 9 [Official Gazette] to constitute a state of war for the purpose of this Act or at any time during a period of six months thereafter,—
(i) serving out of India, tc" (i) serving out of India,"
(ii) under orders to proceed on field service, tc" (ii) under orders to proceed on field service,"
(iii) serving with any unit which is for the time being mobilised, or tc" (iii) serving with any unit which is for the time being mobilised, or"
(iv) serving under conditions which, in the opinion of the prescribed authority, preclude him from obtaining leave of absence to enable him to attend a Court as a party to any proceeding or when he is or has been at any other time serving under conditions service under which has been declared by the 10 [Central Government] by notification in the 9 [Official Gazette] to be service under war conditions; and
10 [(c) overseas—when he is or has been serving in any place outside India (other than Ceylon) the journey between which and 11 [India] is ordinarily undertaken wholly or in part by sea.] 12 [Explanation.—For the purposes of this section and with effect from the 3rd day of September, 1939, a soldier who is or has been a prisoner of war shall be deemed to be or to have been serving under war conditions.]
4. Particulars to be furnished in plaints, applications or appeals to Court.—If any person presenting any plaint, application or appeal to any Court has reason to believe that any adverse party is an Indian soldier who is serving under special conditions, he shall state the fact in his plaint, application or appeal. tc "4. Particulars to be furnished in plaints, applications or appeals to Court.—If any person presenting any plaint, application or appeal to any Court has reason to believe that any adverse party is an Indian soldier who is serving under special conditions, he shall state the fact in his plaint, application or appeal."
5. Power of Collector to intervene in case of unrepresented Indian soldier.—If any Collector has reason to believe that any Indian soldier, who ordinarily resides or has property in his district and who is a party to any proceeding pending before any Court, is unable to appear therein, the Collector may certify the facts in the prescribed manner to the Court. tc "5. Power of Collector to intervene in case of unrepresented Indian soldier.—If any Collector has reason to believe that any Indian soldier, who ordinarily resides or has property in his district and who is a party to any proceeding pending before any Court, is unable to appear therein, the Collector may certify the facts in the prescribed manner to the Court."
6. Notice to be given in case of unrepresented Indian soldier.—1[
(1) If a Collector has certified under Section 5, or if the Court has reason to believe, that an Indian soldier, who is a party to any proceeding pending before it, is unable to appear therein, and if the soldier is not represented by any person duly authorised to appear, plead or act on his behalf, the Court shall suspend the proceeding and shall give notice thereof in the prescribed manner to the prescribed authority: tc "6. Notice to be given in case of unrepresented Indian soldier.—6[(1) If a Collector has certified under Section 5, or if the Court has reason to believe, that an Indian soldier, who is a party to any proceeding pending before it, is unable to appear therein, and if the soldier is not represented by any person duly authorised to appear, plead or act on his behalf, the Court shall suspend the proceeding and shall give notice thereof in the prescribed manner to the prescribed authority\:" Provided that the Court may refrain from suspending the proceeding and issuing notice if— tc "Provided that the Court may refrain from suspending the proceeding and issuing notice if—"
(a) the proceeding is a suit, appeal or application instituted or made by the soldier, alone or conjointly with others with the object of enforcing a right of pre-emption, or tc" (a) the proceeding is a suit, appeal or application instituted or made by the soldier, alone or conjointly with others with the object of enforcing a right of pre-emption, or"
(b) the interests of the soldier in the proceeding are, in the opinion of the Court, either identical with those of any other party to the proceeding and adequately represented by such other party or merely of a formal nature. tc" (b) the interests of the soldier in the proceeding are, in the opinion of the Court, either identical with those of any other party to the proceeding and adequately represented by such other party or merely of a formal nature."
13 [(2) If it appear to the Court before which any proceeding is pending that an Indian soldier though not a party to the proceeding is materially concerned in the outcome of the proceeding and that his interests are likely to be prejudiced by his inability to attend, the Court may suspend the proceeding and shall give notice thereof in the prescribed manner to the prescribed authority.]
7. Postponement of proceedings.—If, on receipt of a notice under section 6, the prescribed authority certifies in the prescribed manner to the Court in which the proceedings is pending that the soldier in respect of whom the notice was given is serving under special conditions, and that a postponement of the proceedings in respect of the soldier is necessary, in the interest of justice, the Court shall thereupon postpone the proceeding in respect of the soldier for the prescribed period, or, if no period has been prescribed, for such period as it thinks fit. tc "7. Postponement of proceedings.—If, on receipt of a notice under section 6, the prescribed authority certifies in the prescribed manner to the Court in which the proceedings is pending that the soldier in respect of whom the notice was given is serving under special conditions, and that a postponement of the proceedings in respect of the soldier is necessary, in the interest of justice, the Court shall thereupon postpone the proceeding in respect of the soldier for the prescribed period, or, if no period has been prescribed, for such period as it thinks fit."
8. Court may proceed when no certificate received.—If, after issue of notice under section 6, the prescribed authority either certifies that the soldier is not serving under special conditions or that such postponement is not necessary, or fails to certify, in the case of a soldier resident in the district in which the Court is situate within two months or, in any other case, within three months, from the date of the issue of the notice that such postponement is necessary, the Court may, if it thinks fit, continue the proceeding. tc "8. Court may proceed when no certificate received.—If, after issue of notice under section 6, the prescribed authority either certifies that the soldier is not serving under special conditions or that such postponement is not necessary, or fails to certify, in the case of a soldier resident in the district in which the Court is situate within two months or, in any other case, within three months, from the date of the issue of the notice that such postponement is necessary, the Court may, if it thinks fit, continue the proceeding."
9. Postponement of proceedings against Indian soldier on leave.—When any document purporting to be signed by the Commanding Officer of an Indian soldier who is a party to any proceeding is produced by or on behalf of the soldier before the Court in which the proceeding is pending and is to the effect that the soldier— tc "9. Postponement of proceedings against Indian soldier on leave.—When any document purporting to be signed by the Commanding Officer of an Indian soldier who is a party to any proceeding is produced by or on behalf of the soldier before the Court in which the proceeding is pending and is to the effect that the soldier—"
(a) is on leave of absence for a period not exceeding two months, and is on the expiration of his leave to rejoin his unit with a view to proceeding on service under special conditions, or tc" (a) is on leave of absence for a period not exceeding two months, and is on the expiration of his leave to rejoin his unit with a view to proceeding on service under special conditions, or"
(b) is on sick leave for a period not exceeding three months, and is on the expiration of his leave to rejoin his unit with a view to proceeding on service under special conditions. tc" (b) is on sick leave for a period not exceeding three months, and is on the expiration of his leave to rejoin his unit with a view to proceeding on service under special conditions." the proceeding in respect of such soldier may, in any case such as if referred to in the proviso to 14 [sub-section (1) of section 6] and shall, in any other case, be postponed in the manner provided in section 7.
10. Power to set aside decrees and orders, passed against an Indian soldier serving under war or special conditions.—
(1) In any proceeding before a Court in which a decree or order has been passed against any Indian soldier 15 [***] whilst he was serving under any special conditions, the soldier 16 [or, if he is dead, his legal representative] may apply to the Court which passed the decree or order for an order to set aside the same, and, if the Court after giving an opportunity to the opposite party of being heard, is satisfied that the interests of justice require that the decree or order should be set aside as against the soldier, the Court shall, subject to such conditions, if any, as it thinks fit to impose, make an order accordingly.
17 [(2) The period of limitation for an application under sub-section (1) shall be ninety days from the date of the decree or order, or where the summons or notice was duly served on the soldier in the proceeding in which the decree or order was passed, from the date on which the applicant had knowledge of the decree or order; and the provisions of section 5 of the Indian Limitation Act, 1908 shall apply to such applications.]
(3) When the decree or order in respect of which an application under sub-section (1) is made is of such a nature that it cannot be set aside as against the soldier only, it may be set aside as against all or any of the parties against whom it has been made.
(4) Where a Court sets aside a decree or order under this section, it shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit, appeal or application, as the case may be. tc "(4) Where a Court sets aside a decree or order under this section, it shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit, appeal or application, as the case may be."
18 [11. Modification of law of limitation where Indian soldier or his legal representative is a party.—In computing the period of limitation prescribed by sub-section (2) of section 10 of this Act, the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, or any other law for the time being in force, for any suit, appeal or application to a Court, any party to which is or has been an Indian soldier, or is the legal representative of an Indian soldier, the period during which the soldier has been serving under any special conditions, and, if the soldier has died while so serving, the period from the date of his death to the date on which official intimation thereof was sent to his next-of-kin by the authorities in India, shall be excluded: tc "5[11. Modification of law of limitation where Indian soldier or his legal representative is a party.—In computing the period of limitation prescribed by sub-section (2) of section 10 of this Act, the Indian Limitation Act, 1908, or any other law for the time being in force, for any suit, appeal or application to a Court, any party to which is or has been an Indian soldier, or is the legal representative of an Indian soldier, the period during which the soldier has been serving under any special conditions, and, if the soldier has died while so serving, the period from the date of his death to the date on which official intimation thereof was sent to his next-of-kin by the authorities in India, shall be excluded\:" Provided that this section shall not apply in the case of any suit, appeal or application instituted or made with the object of enforcing a right of pre-emption 2[3[except where the said right accrues in such circumstances, and is in respect of agricultural land and village immovable property situated in any such area] as the Central Government may, by notification4 in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf]. tc "Provided that this section shall not apply in the case of any suit, appeal or application instituted or made with the object of enforcing a right of pre-emption 1[2[except where the said right accrues in such circumstances, and is in respect of agricultural land and village immovable property situated in any such area] as the Central Government may, by notification3 in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf]."
22 [12. Power of Court to refer questions to prescribed authorities.—If any Court is in doubt whether, for the purposes of section 10 or section 11, an Indian soldier is or was at any particular time serving under special conditions, or has died while so serving, or as to the date of such death or as to the date on which official intimation of such death was sent to his next-of-kin by the authorities in India, the Court may refer the point for the decision of the prescribed authority, and the certificate of that authority shall be conclusive evidence on the point.]
13. Rule-making power.— 23 [
(1) ] The 24 [Central Government] 25 [***] may, by notification in the [Official Gazette] make 26 rules to provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—
(a) the manner and form in which any notice or certificate under this Act shall be given;
(b) the period for which proceedings or any class of proceedings shall be postponed under section 7;
(c) the persons who shall be the prescribed authorities for the purpose of this Act;
(d) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed; and tc" (d) any other matter which is to be or may be prescribed; and"
(e) generally any matters incidental to the purposes of this Act. tc" (e) generally any matters incidental to the purposes of this Act."
27 [(2) Every rule made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.]
14. Power to apply the provisions of the Act to other person in the service of the Government.— 28 [
(1) 29 [As respects the State Public Services, the 30 [State Government], and in other cases, the Central Government] may, by notification in the 31 [Official Gazette], direct that all or any of the provisions of this Act shall apply to any other class of persons in the service of Government specified in such notification in the same manner as they apply to Indian soldiers.
32 [(2) Where, under this section, the 30 [State Government] has directed that all or any of the provisions of this Act shall apply to any class of persons in the service of Government, the powers vested in the Central Government by section 3 and section 13 shall be exercised in respect of that class of persons by the 30 [State Government].]
14A. Power to apply the provisions of the Act to members of the forces maintained by any Part B State.—[Rep. by 3 A.L.O., 1956 (w.r.e.f. 1-11-1956).]
15. Repeal of Acts 9 of 1918 and 12 of 1924.—[Rep. by the Repealing Act, 1927 (12 of 1927), sec. 2 and Sch.]
1. Subs. by A.L.O. 1950, for the former clause (w.e.f. 26-1-1950).
2. The words “except the State of Jammu and Kashmir” were omitted by the Jammu and Kashmir (Extension of Laws) Act, 1956 (62 of 1956), sec. 2 and Sch. (w.e.f. 1-11-1950).
3. Subs. by Act 23 of 1970, sec. 2, for former clause (a) (w.e.f. 29-5-1970).
4. Subs. by Act 3 of 1951, sec. 3 and Sch., for “the Indian Army Act, 1911, or the Indian Air Force Act, 1932” (w.e.f. 1-4-1951).
5. Ins. by Act 23 of 1970, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 29-5-1970).
6. Subs. by A.L.O. 1950, for the words beginning with “in Persia” and ending with “nearest railway Station” (w.e.f. 26-1-1950).
7. Ins. by Act 23 of 1970, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 29-5-1970).
8. Subs. by A.O. 1937, for “Governor General in Council” and “Gazette of India” (w.e.f. 1-4-1937).
9. For such notification, see Vol. 2 of General Statutory Rules and Orders (1961), pp. 272, 273.
10. Subs. by A.O. 1937, for the original clause (w.e.f. 1-4-1937).
11. Subs. by A.C.A.O., 1948, for “British India” (w.e.f. 23-3-1948).
12. Ins. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
13. The original section was renumbered as sub-section (1) and sub-section (2) was ins. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
14. Subs. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 4, for “section 6” (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
15. The words “whilst he was serving under war conditions or at any time after the Ist day of April, 1925” were omitted by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
16. Ins. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
17. Subs. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
18. Subs. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 6, for the original (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
19. Added by Ord. 14 of 1944, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 29-4-1944).
20. Subs. by Act 18 of 1946, sec. 2, for “except in such areas, and subject to such modifications, if any” (w.e.f. 18-4-1946).
21. For such notification, see Gazette of India, 1946, Pt. I, p. 1305.
22. Subs. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 7, for the original (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
23. Section 13 renumbered as sub-section (2) thereof by Act 4 of 1986, sec. 2 & Sch. (w.e.f. 15-5-1986).
24. Subs. by A.O. 1937, for “Local Government” and “local Official Gazette”, respectively.
25. Words “after consulting the High Court concerned”, omitted by Act 23 of 1970, sec. 4 (w.e.f. 29-5-1970).
26. For Indian Soldiers (Litigation) Rules, 1938, see Gazette of India, 1938, Pt. I, p. 968 and for the Indian Seamen (Litigation) Rules, see Gazette of India, 1945, Pt. I, p. 622. (See General Statutory Rules and Orders, Vol. 2 (1961), pp. 262-271.)
27. Sub-section (2) ins. by Act 4 of 1986, sec. 2 and Sch. (w.e.f. 15-5-1986).
28. Section 14 renumbered as sub-section (1) of that section by Ord. 54 of 1942, sec. 8 (w.e.f. 12-12-1942).
29. Subs. by A.O. 1937, for “The Governor-General in Council” (w.e.f. 1-4-1937).
30. Subs. by A.L.O. 1950, for “Provincial Government”.
31. Subs. by A.O. 1937, for “Gazette of India”.
32. Ins. by Ord. 64 of 1942, sec. 8.